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After the diagnosis small fibre neuropathy is made, further investigations into an underlying condition will be performed, as some of these conditions are potentially treatable. Why certain conditions lead to damage of small nerve fibres often is not clear.

The most common cause of small fibre neuropathy is diabetes mellitus. Several other conditions are also associated with small fibre neuropathy.

Causes of small fibre neuropathy:

  • diabetes mellitus
  • immunological disorders (for example thyroid disease, Sjögren’s disease, sarcoidosis),
  • infections (for example Lyme’s disease, HIV),
  • intoxications (for example alcohol, chemotherapy, excessive vitamin B6),
  • hereditary disorders (for example sodium channelopathy, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, Fabry’s disease).